稻米的主要营养成分
发布日期:2009-10-27 18:13:56

稻米的主要成分是淀粉(占85%左右),主要供给人们能量。每克稻米人可吸收的能量为15.5千焦,高于小麦(13.6千焦)和玉米(14.5千焦)。稻米还含约7%的粗蛋白,虽比小麦和玉米(均为10%左右)低,但人体有效蛋白质含量三者相近(均为5.5%左右),赖氨酸含量(3.8g/16gN)高于小麦65%,高于玉米52%。此外,稻米还含少量的脂肪、粗纤维、灰分等。
  从人体的物质结构和消耗来说,碳水化合物是主要“基础原料”。在合理的饮食中,人一天所需的总热能的50%-60%来自于碳水化合物。米饭及面食的主要成分是碳水化合物,它们是既经济又能直接转化的热量物质。与蛋肉相比,米饭要容易消化得多,饭也有着其他营养成分不可代替的必需性。按照中国人的体质状况,一个成人(主要指南方人)每天应当至少吃6两米饭,否则,如果长期吃含有高蛋白、高脂肪、低纤维的菜,容易得高血压、心血管病和肥胖病。即使没有,亚健康也会悄悄袭来。
  稻米按加工的程度的不同有糙米和精米,糙米是稻谷去壳但还保留表皮的米,米表皮进一步除去就成了精米。精米外观漂亮、口感好,但因为除去了皮层,而大米中的维生素B1、钙、磷、铁等微量元素就含在米皮中,所以营养就要略差。现在许多企业在精制米中添加维生素、微量元素如硒等,有助于改善米的营养。日本、美国等发达国家甚至在法律上制定了大米的营养强化标准。    

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